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What is Emphysema of the Lungs?

Description of the disease

Emphysema of the lungs is a chronic disease characterized by the destruction of the walls of the alveolar sacs in the lungs. This leads to a deterioration in gas exchange, especially a worsening of the removal of carbon dioxide from the blood, causing chronic oxygen deficiency.


  • By the degree of development: mild, moderate, severe emphysema.
  • By localization: centrilobular, panacinar, paraseptal emphysema.


  • Cough.
  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Rapid fatigue.
  • Hyperventilation.


The main cause of emphysema development is smoking. The risk of developing the disease is also increased with a genetic predisposition, prolonged exposure to harmful substances, and polluted air.


Emphysema diagnosis includes physical examination, spirometry, and X-ray examination of the lungs.


Treatment of emphysema aims to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life. It includes smoking cessation, drug therapy, oxygen therapy, rehabilitation, and in some cases, surgical intervention.


  • Smoking cessation.
  • Avoiding harmful substances and polluted air.
  • Healthy lifestyle, including physical exercise and proper nutrition.


Emphysema treatment is carried out by a pulmonologist.

Note: This material is provided for informational purposes only and is not medical advice.