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Heart Defect: Description, Classification, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, Doctor

Heart Defect: Description

A heart defect is a congenital or acquired deviation from the normal anatomy and function of the heart. It can affect the structure of the heart, valves, vessels, or rhythm of the heart. Heart defects can have different forms and severity.


  • By type of defect: anomaly of cardiac structure, anomaly of cardiac valve apparatus, anomaly of cardiac rhythm and conduction.
  • By severity: mild, moderate, severe.


Symptoms of heart defects may include shortness of breath, fatigue, edema, cyanosis (blueness of the skin), frequent respiratory infections, delayed growth and development in children.


The causes of heart defects may be genetic, environmental, infectious diseases of the mother during pregnancy, intake of certain medications during pregnancy.


Methods such as echocardiography, electrocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and cardiac catheterization may be used for diagnosing heart defects.


Treatment of heart defects may include medication therapy, surgical intervention, endovascular procedures.


Prevention of heart defects includes a healthy lifestyle for pregnant women, timely treatment of infections during pregnancy, avoidance of harmful factors on health.


Treatment of heart defects is carried out by a cardiologist, cardiac surgeon, endocardiolologist.

Note: This material is provided for informational purposes only and is not medical advice.