Pharmacological action: Antiviral drug – a synthetic nucleoside analogue of thymidine.
In infected cells containing viral thymidine kinase, phosphorylation occurs and conversion to acyclovir monophosphate. Under the influence of guanylate cyclase is converted into acyclovir monophosphate and diphosphate by the action of several cellular enzymes – a triphosphate. The high selectivity and low toxicity to humans due to the lack of the enzyme needed for the formation of acyclovir triphosphate in intact cells of the microorganism.
Acyclovir triphosphate, “embedding” in the synthesized DNA virus, blocking reproduction of the virus. The specificity and the very high selectivity of action is also advantageous due to its accumulation in cells infected with the herpes virus.
Highly active against Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2; virus that causes chickenpox and zoster (Varicella zoster); Epstein-Barr virus (types of viruses are listed in ascending order of magnitude of the IPC acyclovir).
Moderately active against CMV.
When herpes prevents new elements disease, reduces the likelihood of cutaneous dissemination and visceral complications accelerates education crusts, reduces pain in the acute phase of herpes zoster. Immunostimulant effect.
Active ingredient: acyclovir in terms of 100% substance – 200 mg and 400 mg;
excipients: microcrystalline cellulose 21.46 mg or 42.92 mg, povidone 1.17 mg, or 2.34 mg magnesium stearate 2 mg or 4 mg, indigo carmine 0.1 mg or 0.2 mg Sodium carboxymethyl starch 12.5 mg or 25 mg purified water 12.77 mg or 25.54 mg, respectively.
Hypersensitivity to acyclovir, ganciclovir, valacyclovir, or components of the drug, lactation, children under 3 years.
Pregnancy, older age, dehydration, renal failure, neurological disorders or neurological response to reception of cytotoxic drugs (including history).
From the digestive system:
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain; rarely – reversible increases in bilirubin and activity of “liver” enzymes.
From hemopoiesis system:
very rarely – anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia.
From the urinary system:
rarely – elevated levels of urea and creatinine in the blood;
very rarely -. acute renal failure
On the part of the central nervous system:
headache, weakness, dizziness, fatigue, confusion, hallucinations, drowsiness, paresthesia, seizures, decreased concentration, agitation.
itching, rash, Lyell syndrome, urticaria, erythema multiforme, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, angioedema, anaphylaxis.
fever, lymphadenopathy, peripheral edema, blurred vision, myalgia, alopecia.
Inside, during or immediately after a meal, drink plenty of water.
The mode set individually depending on the severity of the disease.
Liver infections of the skin and mucous membranes caused by Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 types
Adults – 200 mg 5 times per day (every 4 hours during waking hours, except for the night sleep) for 5 days to treat genital herpes – 10 days, as appropriate treatment duration may be prolonged
In the combined therapy in patients with severe immunodeficiency, including the developed clinical picture of HIV infection (including early clinical manifestations of HIV infection and AIDS step) after the bone marrow implanted administered 400 mg 5 times per day.
For the prevention of recurrence of infections caused by Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in patients with normal immune status
Adults – 200 mg 4 times a day, every 6 hours, duration of the course from b to 12 months
For the prevention of infections caused by Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, in immunocompromised patients
Adults – 200 mg four times a day every 6 hours maximum dose – 400 mg 5 times per day depending on the severity of the infection
In the treatment of shingles – 800 mg 5 times a day (every 4 hours during waking hours, except nighttime sleep) for 7-10 days
Children under the age of 3 years, the drug is administered in the same dose as adults.
Treatment of varicella: adults and children older than 6 years – 800 mg 4 times daily; children 3-6 years – 400 mg 4 times a day. More precisely, the dose can be determined from the rate of 20 mg/kg.
The course of treatment 5 days.
Patients with impaired renal function requires correction doses and dosing regimen depending on the creatinine clearance and type of infection. For the treatment of infection by Herpes simplex, with creatinine clearance less than 10 mL/min daily dose should be reduced to 400 mg, dividing it into 2 doses (with intervals therebetween of at least 12 hours, i.e. 200 mg 2 times a day).
In the treatment of infections caused by Varicella zoster, and maintenance treatment of patients with severe immunodeficiency – patients with a creatinine clearance of 10-25 ml/min prescribers 800 mg three times a day at intervals of 8 hours, with creatinine clearance less than 10 mL/min – 800 mg 2 times a day at intervals of 12 hours.